The hair shaft is the main site of clues concerning hair fragility and gross abnormalities of appearance such as cheveux incoiffables. These disorders may result in scarring cicatricial alopecia in which there is shiny pale skin and reduced or absent follicular orifices. Structural anomalies of the hair shaft springerlink. Hair shaft disorders are a diverse group of congenital and acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The pathogenesis of alopecia areata aa still remains unclear. Hair shaft diseases are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Hair shaft disorders are separated by hair fragility into those with or without increased fragility. Reevaluation of ichthyosis and hair shaft abnormalities.
Hair shaft disorders can occur independently or in association with genetic or. Lamellar ichthyosis, dwarfism, mental retardation, and hair shaft abnormalities characterization of tiger tail banding and hair shaft abnormalities in trichothiodystrophy. In general, optic microscopy and polarized light microscopy of hair shafts provide important. Structural abnormalities of the hair shaft pdf free download. Normal hair shafts are uniform in thickness and color. The condition occurs most commonly in horses with high fevers, systemic illnesses, or malnutrition fig. The movement of a spacecraft between earth and the moon is an example of the infamous three body problem. Trichoscopy is particularly useful to diagnose hair shaft abnormalities in. Hair shaft abnormalities with the elements the weather, lifestyle and pollution have to offer, a certain amount of breakages on our hair is expected and are completely normal. The hair shaft the hair shaft is the main site of clues concerning hair fragility and gross abnormalities of appearance such as cheveux incoiffables. Hair shaft defects or hair shaft disorders are common and can indicate an underlying pathology. In the second group, the structural anomalies are not associated with increased hair fragility, and hair breakage is not a problem.
Our approachto classify if the disorder is genetic or acquired. Older patients suffer from a variety of conditions that affect the hair, i. Tay chichthyosiform erythroderma, hair shaft abnormalities, and mental and growth. Abnormalities of the hair shaft are varied and often confusing. Structural abnormality or damage to the structure of the hair shaft results in a hair shaft disorder. Request pdf dermatoscopy of hair shaft disorders until a few years ago the diagnosis of hair shaft disorders was based on light microscopy or scanning. Within the spectrum of conditions in which fragility is a problem, the examiner may see the features of damage andor the primary abnormalities that dispose towards damage. They present as thin, short, or unruly hair in young children. Trichoscopy in genetic hair shaft abnormalities ncbi. It is differentiated from the head hair and less visible vellus hair, which is much finer and lighter in color. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks. In the first group, the malformations are associated with increased fragility of the hair, and hair breakage is a major symptom. The diagnostic features of the different hair shaft abnormalities are outlined.
Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Light microscopic examination of scalp hair samples as an. Cuticle is the outer layer of the hair shaft which is thin and colourless. Some hair shaft disorders cause fragility of the hair shaft leading to increased hair breakage. Steatocystoma multiplex sm is an unusual benign disorder of the pilosebaceous duct characterized by multiple cysts with little or no nail and hair involvement. Pili torti twisting of hair, flattened hair with rotation of 180 degree around long axis at irregular interval eg.
Beaded appearance of hair due to periodic thinning of hair shaft like necklace or string of beads normal at birth, few months later with short, fragile brittle hair trichorrhexis invaginata bamboo hair. Bayliss, mdb,c saint louis, missouri many of the genes causing hair shaft defects have recently been elucidated. Hair shaft abnormalitiesclues to diagnosis and treatment. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry. There are a number of recognized hair shaft disorders, each with distinctive features, the. Clinically, hair shaft defects may cause an unusual appearance, or a fragile short and sparse hair. There are a number of ways to encourage healthier and faster hair growth and herbs are one of the best.
It consists of a single overlapping layer of transparent, scalelike cells that look like shingles on. Abnormal hairs are usually limited to the scalp, but the condition can affect. The growth of androgenic hair is related to the level of androgens often referred to as male hormones and the density of androgen receptors in the dermal papillae. Pdf trichoscopy in genetic hair shaft abnormalities. Menkes syndrome, bjornstard syndrome trichorrhexis nodosa is the fraying of hair ends so that the resemble a broomstick or paint brush. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. Some are associated with extracutaneous disease, whereas others affect only the hair itself. One of the most common hair shaft defects a dermatologist encounters is trichorrhexis nodosa also called trichonodosis. Steatocystoma multiplex with hair shaft abnormalities. Structural changes in hair shaft can be a part of a bouquet of symptoms presenting clinically. Common genetic hair shaft abnormalities may be visualized. Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft.
The four major types of abnormality are fractures, irregularities, twisting, and extraneous matter affecting the hair shaft. A new autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, progerialike appearance, mental deficiency, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and hair shaft defects consisting of pili torti and trichorrhexis nodosalike lesions was found in three children of a chinese family in singapore. However, several studies have indicated that aa is an organspecific autoimmune. Neurodegenerative disorders with hair abnormalities. This continuing medical education article discusses the major types of hair shaft defects and associated syndromes and includes a. Disease and disorders of the hair and scalp visual identification 2.
Hair grows in cycles so the structure of an individual hair apparatus varies. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Agerelated general problems affecting the condition of hair. Our results show that characteristic light microscopy features of netherton syndrome, monilethrix, woolly hair syndrome, pili torti, pili annulati and. Hair colour, like skin colour, derives from melanin. Knopp, overview of hair shaft disorders, an atlas of hair pathology with clinical correlations 2e, 10. A diverse group of conditions can result in hair shaft abnormalities. We report a 30yearold woman with multiple cystic nodules located on the neck, axillae. Changes in hair shaft over a large area of scalp can cause alopecia, frizzy woolly hair or at times may go completely undetected unless examined microscopically.
Manual of mental disorders dsmiv, and are listed in table 66. Woolly hair is a rare congenital abnormality of structure of scalp hair. Under table 1 standing this process is clinically important, since the vast majority of patients with hair disorders suffer from an undesired alteration of hair follicle cycling 12. Wy sim 1, jh chung 2, yc kye 3 and bl lew 1 1 kyunghee university hospital at gangdong, seoul, republic of korea. Some hair shaft defects can be identified with the naked eye, and. Lamellar ichthyosis, dwarfism, mental retardation, and hair shaft.
Hair shaft abnormalities must be evaluated from different regions of scalp to increase. Trichorrhexis invaginata associated with ichthyosis linearis circumflexa occured in a 36yearold man. Of the congenital conditions, the hair abnormality may be either an isolated occurrence. Structures of the hair shaft the three main layers of the hair shaft are the hair cuticle, cortex, and medulla figure 112. Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Abed s 21 common genetic hair shaft abnormalities may be visualized by light and electron microscope glob dermatol, 21 doi. Light microscopy of hair shaft defects are classified by their morphology and it is an important tool for diagnosis. Then the new anagen hair shaft starts to germinate within the same follicle, and it pushes out the telogen hair resulting in normal hair shedding or moulting. It is said that a general analytical solution for tbp is not known because of the complexit. Genetic hair shaft abnormalities may be diagnosed by trichosco py in a single diagnostic session without the need of plucking or cutting them for diagnostic purposes. Differential effects of caffeine on hair shaft elongation. Hair shaft abnormalities clues to diagnosis and treatment. It acts as a protection to the cortex of the hair shaft. Disorders of hair in infants and children other than alopecia clinics. There is an expanding list of syndromes that combine ichthyosis with. Comprehensive overview and treatment update on hair loss. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities.
Ichthyosiform erythroderma, hair shaft abnormalities, and. Structural abnormalities of the hair shaft sciencedirect. It is caused by mutations in the hair cortex keratin genes krt86 and krt81. Trichoscopy in genetic hair shaft abnormalities article pdf available in journal of dermatological case reports 22. Part ii rogers 1996 australasian journal of dermatology wiley online library. Anagen defluxion refers to a condition in which a disease or drug interferes with anagen hair growth resulting in abnormal hairs or hair shaft abnormalities or both. A free powerpoint ppt presentation displayed as a flash slide show on id. Clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases trichoscopy hair and scalp dermoscopy analyzes the structure and.
Trichoscopy allows detection of several hair shaft abnormalities, including various types of fractured hairs, hairs with narrowings, hairs with nodelike structures, twisted or curled hairs, hairs with bands, and short hairs. Dermatoscopy of hair shaft disorders request pdf researchgate. Structural hair anomalies may be divided into two groups. Hair shaft disorders graying of the scalp hair is genetically determined and may start at any age. Hair shaft diseases may occur as localized or generalized disorders. They do require accurate recognition, which can be helpful in the diagnosis and management of a hair disorder, or in the detection of underlying disease. These are rare and diagnosed by light or electron microscopy. The hair cuticle hayr kyootikul is the outermost layer of the hair. An association of a hair anomaly with other abnormalities, especially those affecting skin, teeth and nails, is seen in many congenital syndromes. American hair research society patient information faqs. People experiencing excessively unusual amounts of hair breakage may have an abnormality within the hair. Physical or chemical injury may causes various hair shaft abnormalities, both in normal or in fragile hair. The appearance of white hair at specific locations, such as a white forelock, may rarely signify a number of genetic disorders, such as. Albinism results in white hair, while a loss of hair colour during older age is known as canities lat.
Anagen hair loss occurs due to disorders that stop the mi. In the young baby, abnormalities are often congenital as part of a syndrome such as menkes, 1 nethertons, 2 trichothiodystrophy, 3, 4 chediakhigashi, 5 griscelli, 6 or uncombable hair syndrome. Trichorrhexis nodosa is a defect in the hair fiber. Acquired disorders can be treated and a permanent cure can be. Abnormalities of hair shafts may be congenital or acquired. The findings noted in this patient are consistent with monilethrix beaded hair. Hair shaft defects can be inherited or acquired, and sometimes may indicate underlying disease.73 534 1335 1371 1448 1566 357 1500 274 995 992 1322 1450 1031 980 1561 1516 1310 923 1343 857 51 515 536 518 314 556 236 1315 1444 52 1538 522 726 1000 1008 65 145 624 1167